For years, the gold standard for UTI diagnosis has been urinalysis and standard urine culture. However, lengthy turnaround times, potential false positive results, and difficulty in reporting speciation and antibiotic susceptibility are among the shortcomings in culture methodology. Thus, newer technologies have now been developed to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs.
These newer technologies include Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing which involves the amplification and detection of targeted DNA. Not only are the urine pathogens (disease-causing organisms) detected by PCR, but the test also screens for antibiotic resistance. Realtime Laboratories, Inc. in Carrollton, Texas, has implemented a UTI PCR test for 17 bacteria, 1 yeast, and 7 genes marking resistance to antibiotics.

Patients are required to fill-out a SURVEY then submit “Medical Release Form” to order the UTI test
Price: $599

Practitioners can order HERE

Become a Provider and start ordering today!


Gram Positive CocciGram Negative BacilliYeast
Enterococcus faecalisAcinetobacter baumanniiCandida albicans
Enterococcus faeciumCitrobacter freundii 
Streptococcus agalactiaeEnterobacter cloacae complex 
Staphylococcus xylosus/saprophyticusEscherichia coli 
 Klebsiella aerogenes (Enterobacter aerogenes) 
 Klebsiella oxytoca 
 Klebsiella pneumoniae 
 Morganella morganii 
 Proteus mirabilis 
 Proteus vulgaris 
 Providencia stuartii 
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 


Gene(s)               Antibiotics and/or Bacteria Involved
mecA MRSA (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/ Beta-lactam resistance    
blaSHVClass A Beta-lactam resistant and MRSA/Beta-Lactamase
vanBVancomycin resistance
ermBErythromycin resistance
sul1Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (Septra/Bactrim) resistance
blaKPCCarbapenem hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase KPC
qnrAQuinolone resistance

DISCLOSURE:  RTL does not treat or recommend treatments for uncomplicated or complicated UTIs.  The information contained here is taken from noted source documents.  For further guidance, the reader may contact the Medical Department at RTL concerning any issues regarding UTIs or treatments. 


Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur in more than one-half of adult women in the United States. Many will develop at least two infections in a six-month period or may even have three infections within one year. Many national and international bodies have published peer-reviewed documents on uncomplicated and complicated UTIs. The two types of urinary tract infections are shown below.

1. Uncomplicated Lower UTIs or Cystitis
  • Female patients without catheters and without any co-morbid conditions.
2. Complicated Lower UTIs or Cystitis
  • Men
  • Pregnant women
  • Women with co-morbid conditions, including but not limited to:
  • Kidney stones or surgery
  • Urinary retention
  • Spinal cord injury or hemiplegia
  • Moderate or severe liver disease
  • Diabetes
  • Chronic anticoagulation
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Immunodeficiency or on suppressants of immune system

The reader is referred to the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium document on Guidelines for Treatment of UTIs. For further information (https://mi-hms.org/sites/default/files/UTI%20Guideline-6.9.21.pdf).


  1. Antibiotic Stewardship 
    *RealTime Labs supports the Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship, which includes the effort to improve how antibiotics are prescribed by clinicians and used by patients
    * The test targets the infection-causing microbe, either yeast or bacteria.
    * The presence of a gene for resistance to antibiotics is determined, which optimizes the physician’s ability to treat infections. This will protect patients from harm caused by unnecessary antibiotic use and thus, improve patient outcomes.
    * The reader is referred to the link of CDC showing extensive documents concerning antibiotic stewardship in different patient populations:
    i. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/core-elements/outpatient.html
    ii. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/core-elements/nursing-homes.html
  2. Reduced False Negatives 
    * The test results from RTL will help eliminate false negative results.
    * Positive and negative controls are conducted in tandem with each patient’s test.
  3. Reduced Bacterial Resistance with Pathogen Identification 
    * The  international consortium noted here lists   treatment modalities  to use and/or avoid.  https://mi-hms.org/sites/default/files/UTI%20Guideline-6.9.21.pdf
    * The treatment modalities recommended in the Michigan Consortium document is as follows: 

Uncomplicated Lower Urinary Tract Infection or Cystitis

Nitrofurantoin5 daysAvoid if CrCl < 30 ml/min
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole3 daysIncreasing E. coli resistance
Fosfomycin1 doseCost ~$60/dose
May not be available at some retail pharmacies
May consider extending duration to 3-5 doses
Oral beta-lactam3-7 days

Complicated Lower Urinary Tract Infection or Cystitis

Nitrofurantoin7 daysAvoid if CrCl < 30 ml/min
Fosfomycin48 hrs x 3-5 dosesCost ~$60/dose
May not be available at some retail pharmacies
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole3 daysIncreasing E. coli resistance
 Oral beta-lactam, aztreonam in setting of severe penicillin or cephalosporin allergy7 days 

Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole7-14 days
Fluoroquinolones5-7 days
Beta-lactamsOral beta-lactam or oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy: 7-14 days
  • When incorrect antibiotics are prescribed, pathogens gain strength and become resistant to treatment.
  • Antimicrobial resistance has the potential to affect people at any stage of life, as well as the healthcare, veterinary, and agricultural industries.
  • This makes it one of the world’s most urgent public health problems.
  • Bacteria and yeast do not have to be resistant to every antibiotic or antifungal to be dangerous.

Further Information on Antibiotic Dosage

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg)1 DS tablet po BID
Nitrofurantoin100 mg po BID
Fosfomycin3 g dose (see tables for complicated and uncomplicated lower UTI)
Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin)875 mg po BID
Uncomplicated cystitis: 500 mg po BID
Cephalexin500 mg po BID
Uncomplicated cystitis: 500 mg po BID
Cefpodoxime100-200 mg po BID
Uncomplicated cystitis: 100 mg po BID
Cefdinir300 mg po BID
Cefuroxime500 mg po BID
Ciprofloxacin250-750 mg po BID
  1. THE 5 Ds of Antibiotic Choice
    1. Diagnosis
    2. Drug
    3. Dose
    4. Duration

    5. De-escalation (reduction in the spectrum of administered antibiotics through the discontinuation of antibiotics)
    * Diagnostic tests should be used wisely to avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy or therapy that is unnecessarily broad-spectrum, with consideration of healthcare value.
    * Rapid diagnostic tests, biomarkers, and decision rules that have acceptable performance characteristics to differentiate bacterial vs. non-bacterial infection should be used to avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

    5. Increased Patient Satisfaction with better outcome
    * The results from RealTime Labs will help healthcare providers improve patient satisfaction by providing the correct diagnostic tool and results in a timely manner.
    * We deliver an overnight kit to patients with simple instructions for specimen collection and return it to the lab by overnight carrier.
    * In 8 to 24 hours the results are available for review and an informed decision can be made by the healthcare provider giving personalized treatment for the patient.
    * This will improve both patient satisfaction and ultimately result in better outcomes.


  1. The test is available in all 50 states
  2. Test kit is sent overnight to your door
  3. Lab results reviewed upon completion and antibiotic genetic results available to discuss antibiotic selection with the patient’s healthcare provider
  4. More personalized approach to treating a patient’s condition.
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